Please use our A-Z INDEX to navigate this site where page links may lead to other sites.




Hydrogen power is the next stage of sustainable development for electrics, by extending range significantly for passenger vehicles and making the practical operation of long range heavy goods vehicles possible. But what about when a fuel cell breaks down? Roadside recovery will take you to the nearest garage for a conventional FCEV, but with the SmartNet™ Universal system, you can have a replacement fitted in a couple of minutes and be back on your way.




A FCEV, is an electric vehicle that is powered by a hydrogen fuel cell. FCEVs and the associated refuelling infrastructures are currently in the very early stages of market introduction.






Typically, hydrogen is delivered to a fuelling location in the same way as it is distributed to industry: in pressurized tanks on lorries. However, at suitable sites hydrogen can be produced on-site by electrolysis, in the best case with the aid of renewable electricity obtained via direct coupling (wind/solar), or through grid-balancing services.




Fuel cells coupled to hydrogen storage tanks, with special couplings and electronic controls, in a standard (Universal) cartridge format, offer range extenders to any battery electric vehicle they may be clipped onto, such as commercial vans and trucks. These are called 'Hydrogen Batteries.' We invented them.


As of April 2021, no major vehicle OEM has adopted the Universal standard for any of their hydrogen powered vehicles. Yet, the adoption of a standard, offers a way to accelerate the transition from petrol and diesel cars, through battery electrics, to FCEVs.








The Daimler GLC F-CELL is set to combine innovative fuel-cell and battery technology in the form of a plug-in hybrid: in addition to hydrogen it will also run on electricity. With 4.4 kg of hydrogen on board, the preproduction model produces enough energy for a range of up to 437* km in the NEDC. F-CELL drivers will also benefit from a range of up to 49 km in the NEDC thanks to the large lithium-ion battery and its output of 147 kW.

The Toyota Mirai (which means ‘future’ in Japanese) signals the start of a new age of vehicles. Using hydrogen – an important future energy carrier – as fuel to generate electricity, the Mirai achieves superior environmental performance with the convenience and driving pleasure expected of any car. The Mirai is fitted with two 700 bar hydrogen tanks enough to provide a driving range of 500 km. It is the first mass produced sedan fuel cell vehicle with excellent performance of 113 kW and a low centre of gravity.







The Honda Clarity Fuel Cell houses an advanced Honda built fuel cell stack in the engine compartment. As a result, the Honda Clarity Fuel Cell sedan is capable of seating five occupants. Its powertain delivers 130 kW and 300 Nm maximum torque. The Clarity Fuel Cell offers a generous range of 650 km (NEDC) with hydrogen stored at 700 bar.

The B-Class F-Cell (Daimler) vehicles are fitted with a 700-bar hydrogen tank in the sandwich floor unit. Its electric motor develops an output of 100 kW, with a torque of 290 Nm, and thus has the power rating of a two-litre gasoline engine. The zero-emission drive system consumes the equivalent of 3.3 litres of diesel per 100 kilometres (NEDC).


The energy content of hydrogen tanks in vehicles is typically less than that of regular petrol or diesel vehicles. The automotive industry has agreed globally on a pressure of 700 bars for hydrogen in cars – the pressure of hydrogen storage systems is mechanically controllable. Hydrogen vehicles driven in demonstration trial programmes have undergone the automotive manufacturers’ complete development cycle, including crash tests, and are cleared for road use.










Tesla co-founder and CEO Elon Musk has dismissed hydrogen fuel cells as “mind-bogglingly stupid,” and that is not the only negative thing he has had to say about the technology. He has called them “fool cells,” a “load of rubbish,” and told Tesla shareholders at an annual meeting years ago that “success is simply not possible.”

Musk found a surprising source of support in 2017, when Yoshikazu Tanaka, chief engineer in charge of the Toyota Mirai, told Reuters, “Elon Musk is right — it’s better to charge the electric car directly by plugging in.” But the Toyota executive added that hydrogen is a viable alternative to gasoline.


Toyota chairman Takeshi Uchiyamada told Reuters at the same Tokyo auto show in 2017, “We don’t really see an adversary ‘zero-sum’ relationship between the EV (battery powered electric vehicle) and the hydrogen car. We’re not about to give up on hydrogen electric fuel-cell technology at all.”

The auto industry as a whole has not embraced Musk’s battery-or-bust vision of the future. A 2017 survey of 1,000 senior auto executives conducted by KPMG found they believe hydrogen fuel cells have a better long-term future than electric cars and will represent “the real breakthrough” (78 percent), with the auto executives citing the short refueling time of just a few minutes as a major advantage. Sixty-two percent told KPMG that infrastructure challenges will result in the battery-powered electric vehicle market’s undoing.







The Mercedes Benz (Daimler) F-Cell, hydrogen fuel cell powered estate car




Please use our A-Z INDEX to navigate this site



This website is provided on a free basis to promote zero emission transport in Europe and Internationally. Copyright © Climate Change Trust & Universal Smart Batteries 2022. Solar Studios, BN271RF, United Kingdom.